What do you know about Concrete?

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concrete pouring

Hey guys, Welcome to Civil Builder. Today, We explain to you about the concrete. Let’s Get Started.

What do you know about the concrete? The answer will be easy but not short.

Here are the things that you should know about the concrete. Concrete is a composite material which vastly used in the construction industry—concrete composed of fine aggregates, cores aggregates, cement, and water.

Materials use to produce concrete


Cement is the binding material of the concrete. It is essential to use a suitable cement type for concrete as there various kinds of cement are available in the construction industry. Somes tend to use ordinary portland cement (OPC) for concrete due to its vast availability. Still, it is better if Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) use for concrete as it has a slower rate of hydration than OPC. Due to this, slow hydration PPC prone to less crack and reduce the shrinkage. In special cases, specified admixtures are using to slower the hydration rate to produce for high-performance concrete. And also, fly ash modified types of cement are using to produce concrete due to its slow hydration.


As for fine aggregates, sand and crushed stone can use. Particle size should less than 9.55mm. Sand is the ordinary material to use for concrete as fine aggregates. Crushed stones came to use as an alternative to sand Due to the lack of resources of sand at nowadays crushed rocks used as an alternative material.

river sand for concrete

River sand

The range of cores aggregate varies from 4.75mm to 40mm in diameter, however, the usual array of cores aggregates in between 9.

55mm and 40mm in diameter. 20mm aggregate is the most common size in use to produce concrete and Larger size aggregates such as 40mm use in mass concrete.

aggregates for concrete

20mm aggregates


Adding water to concrete is critical as the amount of water in the concrete mixture can be affected by the quality of the concrete. Therefore a ratio for water and cement has introduced. More commonly, a maximum of this ratio w/c is 0.45. The amount of water included in concrete can determine by performing a slump test. With the reading of slump can determine whether concrete is in acceptable condition or not. To maintain the quality of the concrete, only drinkable water use for mixing concrete.

slump test for concrete

Slump test for concrete

properties of concrete

The density of the concrete around 2400 kg/m3 and this can be slightly varied with the grade of the concrete.
Concrete is an excellent compressive material to use in construction. Therefore concrete usually uses for elements that should resist the compressive loads and forces. The compressive strength of the concrete can be measured by performing several tests that are on-site and off-site. The grade of the concrete also determines by using this compressive strength.

However, concrete can’t stand for stress forces itself. Therefore, steel is used as reinforcement in concrete elements to resist bending forces, deflection, and stress forces.

After casting concrete elements or members, they should well cure by using water at least four days continually. The water curing period is essential to keep the moisture of the concrete that need for the hydration process. This process will allow developing the full strength of the concrete, and it increases the durability of the concrete. Apart from the normal water curing process, there are other curing methods also available. Such as, When it comes to constructing a concrete slab instead of re-watering to cure the concrete, a curing compound can be applied on the exposed surface of the concrete to lock the moisture in it and allow using the original amount of moisture for the hydration process.

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