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What is Construction
Construction means the building of something. This can mean building anything from freeways to an office block to a brand new cinema. It is always happening around us all the time. The larger the project, the longer it will take to build so that some construction can last a few weeks, and some may take a few years. There is a lot of hard work in the construction of a building, and there are several stages. Throughout the entire construction cycle of a building, for example, work will begin with the foundation stage and move to the framing, exterior, drywall, and finishing. Regarding what is being constructed or built, the stages of construction may differ with the scope of the project, and there may even be fewer or more stages to follow.
No matter the scale, construction is a team project and requires a lot of teamwork. A construction project may require a very small or large workforce, depending on the size of the project. No matter the size, there are many different jobs to do, requiring many different skills. At a construction site, each person is responsible for doing their work using their skills and there could be more than 50 men and women doing different jobs, including roofers, engineers, electricians, plumbers, and many more.
Not every one of the workforce will be site based either; some may be driving on the road delivering necessary supplies or back at the office planning the project. Because there can be many people working on a construction site at the same time, many things are happening at once. The building also requires many different types of equipment, from small tools to large equipment, such as vehicles. If not used correctly, these two types of equipment can be hazardous to the person using it and to everyone else around them. That is why safety is always the primary focus on a construction site. Construction is an exciting environment. Take a look the next time you go out and find out how you are shaping the world around you for the future.
Types of Construction
The industry can divide into four different types. such as following,
Residential building construction
The first type is residential home construction that involves the build, repair, and remodelling of structures to house people, supplies, or equipment. This includes apartments, townhomes, condos, nursing homes, bedrooms, etc. Also, garages and outbuildings, such as utility sheds, are considered residential buildings. As mentioned above, residential construction also involves the repair and installation of utilities such as water and electricity around the structure. The design of residential housing projects is generally carried out by engineers and architects, and the construction itself is carried out by construction companies that hire subcontractors to carry out the mechanical, structural and electrical work of the project. But for single-family homes, builders often do all phases, both design and build.
When comparing with others, this is a small segment of the construction industry. These projects include power plants, manufacturing plants, solar wind farms, refineries, etc. Although they are called “industrial construction,” it is entirely interchangeable with “commercial construction.”
Commercial building construction
Commercial construction is the construction of buildings or similar structures for commercial purposes. This includes a wide variety of projects, including the construction of restaurants, supermarkets, skyscrapers, shopping malls, sports facilities, hospitals, private schools, and universities, etc.
Heavy civil construction
The last type is infrastructure and heavy construction encompassing the construction and upgrading of railways, communications, and roads, railroads around a city, or construction of existing buildings. This type of construction is generally done in the public interest and is often carried out by government agencies and large private corporations. Some other projects that are included in this type of construction include tunnels, bridges, roads, transit systems, drainage systems, and pipelines.
Categorization construction projects by facility type is a good reference, but it is not the most useful framework. Instead, it is much more important to classify construction projects based on who owns them. Why? Because that is what matters to state and federal laws when it comes to protecting your right to receive a payment.
Stages of Construction
The briefing is the process by which customer requirements investigated, developed, and communicated to the industry. The briefing of some kind always occurs during a project, although the quality may vary significantly. A good briefing is not easy to achieve, yet Several studies have suggested that Improvements in information lead to customers improving buildings
The briefing is often viewed as an early stage in the construction process during which customer requirements are gathered in a formal document called a report. The report provides a fixed reference for the subsequent design of the building. This traditional view of the briefing is highly restrictive in many ways. Clients may not have previous experience, so from such a client, they cannot be expected to know everything that will be mandatory for the building at the start of the project. The requirements are only developed in detail as the project progresses. This means that the customer cannot sit down after the initial report has been written and wait for a successful design to emerge without further effort. Full participation in the entire project is essential.
While a clear initial summary can be a great asset, it is not the end of the story. The important thing is to make appropriate decisions for the particular stage of project development.
- It will be necessary to make strategic decisions from the beginning and leave the details until a later stage.
- The client should not drop out of the process once an initial report has been drafted.
There is no simple formula that automatically produces a good briefing. However, several issues affect the quality of the information and should be carefully considered by the customer:
The design stage begins with the approval of the project budget that contains as bellow,
- design and associated documents
- professional time for the designer, project manager, and potential contractors
- design probability / contingency.
At the end of the design phase/stage, the construction budget is ready for approval, and the project is ready to be built. The deliverables of the design stage are the design documents, the construction documents, and the preliminary contract document collection. Once the budget is confirmed, the Construction stage begins.
The design stage can be divided into four sub-stages:
- Estimation of the realistic cost of the project.
- Determination of building and user requirements.
- Establishment of a total construction area.
- Refining the scope of work.
Schematic design stage
- Construction systems (structural, mechanical, HVAC, plumbing, and electrical).
- Interior and exterior finishes.
- Construction site.
Design development stage
- Building materials and interior and exterior finishes.
- Selection and distribution of furniture and equipment.
- Joinery and custom manufacturing.
- Lighting and technology designs.
- Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems.
Construction document stage
- Accordance with all applicable state and federal codes and regulations.
- Verification of construction site conditions.
- Quality controls during the construction phase.
- Estimates of all associated costs.
Types of tendering
- Open tendering
- Selective tendering
- Negotiated tendering
- Serial tendering
- Framework tendering
- Single-stage and two-stage tendering
- Public procurement
Before construction work begins, a pre-construction meeting is held to ensure everyone is on the same page when construction begins. This meeting usually includes information on the following topics:
- how to access the job site
- project quality control
- how and where to store all materials
- the hours everyone will be working
Each worker can be given his own time schedule. It is also required to note that the programs of each project agent may vary according to their role in the job. This is especially valid for subcontractors who need to complete certain parts of the job before they can begin their part. It is readily apparent that poor planning at this point can lead to serious budget overdue and delays.
Once the project meeting is over, and there are no outstanding questions, the project can be initiated with its first steps. The target at this point is to have planned everything so carefully that everything goes smoothly. Of course, that hardly happens, as something always goes wrong during a construction project.
To avoid difficulties, when planning your project, you should use some kind of digital solution.
Each construction project has a “start” or “break-in” period, which begins after the project has been substantially completed. Building systems and equipment are monitored, warranty issues and situations are identified, and repairs and modifications continue. The project officially closes only after all items on the “drill list” are addressed.
Some problems that are identified during the settlement period may not be part of the initial scope of work. These work items are assigned to a separate project and funding source. The new project will have its schedule and budget and often doesn’t start until the original project is closed.
Many construction systems require a period of continuous operation before their performance can be accurately evaluated. An operations analysis after six months to a year of use can significantly affect maintenance and custody schedules and practices. Both satisfactory and low-performance systems are documented for future requirements and reference.
At numerous times, a post-occupancy interview or questionnaire can be given to building users to record their opinions and experiences with the building. This information can be used to make additional modifications to the building or can provide useful information for future projects. The review can also identify practices or activities that may have a negative impact on the facility over time. If so, building users receive new training, or building systems are redesigned to meet previously unknown needs.
At the end of the day, each stage of a construction project is a chain of tasks, decisions, and numerous tools. Its complexity depends largely on the size and type of the project, but there are always some basic steps that cannot be skipped.
Impeccable communication between different stakeholders and fact-based decisions are two fundamental pillars in the effort to streamline a construction project and ensure that all phases are developed and completed within the agreed time and budget.